The horse has been one of man’s useful animals for thousands of years. Horses once provided the fastest and surest way to travel on land, in farming, hauling loads, pulling carriages and carrying man on horseback from time immemorial. Man has used horses for hunting other animals in battle and sport. Although the horse today is not as important as it once was, people still use horses for horses for work and play. The horse is now the predominant sporting animal competing in horse’s races, rodeos, horses show and polo competitions.

In the past 300 years horse breeders have made continuous attempts to improve the various breeds of horses and to develop strains that are particularly suited for specialized tasks. The resultant new breeds include saddle horses and harness horses especially adapted for racing gaits, hunters adapted for endurance, carriage horses, draught horses for pulling heavy load, and cow ponies [small, fast horses that can be trained to be complicated man oeuvres of roping and polo playing].

There are now horses and ponies of all size, shape and temperament to suit every taste and sporting pastime. These are just a few of them.

The horse is well-suited for working and running. Its wide nostrils help it breathe easily and long muscular legs give horses the strength to pull heavy loads or to run at fast speeds. Horses also have a good sense of smell, sharp ears, and keen eyes.

Most horses have good memories and can be easily trained to obey commands. They are eager to please their masters if properly cared for.


Domestic horses were introduced into Babylonia in about 2000 BC and into Egypt about 300 year later, These Egyptian and Babylonian horses were the forerunners of the swift Arabian breeds of the Middle East and northern Africa.

Another strain of horses appears to have been domesticated in Europe. Heavily built and slower but more powerful than the Arabians, they are regarded as the early ancestors of the modern draught horses used for ploughing and other heavy work.

Throughout most of Europe, from the early centuries AD to about the 17th century, the powerful native horses were used for military mounts, for hauling heavy loads, and as pack animals. During the same period the Arabic world has developed smaller, fast-galloping breeds, which were introduced into Spain after the Muslim conquest in the 18th century. The horses bred in Spain became framed for their speed and England and Europe as early as the 12th century.

The Arab : or Arabian is though to be one of the oldest established breeds in the world and records have been found dating back 5000 years. It traces its origins to the Arabian peninsular and it a fast and element horses. The head is small and short with a prominent broad forehead, small muzzle and wide large nostrils. The ears are small and alert, while the tail is carried high and distinctively arched. The body is short with good sloping shoulder.

The Barb : is a sub-breed of the Arab, native to the Barbary States of northern Africa. It is an athletic horse capable of high speeds over short distances and long- distance endurance in the desert heat. The various sub-breeds of the Arab provide excellent polo ponies.

The Thoroughbred: is the most influential breed in the world and the fastest. It was developed in the early 18th century from offspring of three foundation sires the by rely Turk, the Daley Arabian and the Go dolphin and native English mares. The thoroughbred is renowned for its speed and is primarily used for flat racing and show jumping. The head is fine with bright alert eyes and medium sized ears. The neck is long, arched and elegant. The body is strong and deep with widely sprung ribs and a strong back with high croup and muscular quarters. Its supreme quality and presence make it the outstanding horses in looks. However it has a fiery temperament and it not suited to the inexperienced rider, but with tact and appropriate training it will excel at most competitive sports.

The Quarter Horse: is the most popular and numerous breed in the USA. The Quarter Horses originated from crossing the thoroughbred with the local Indian mustang. The latter has Spanish and barb origins. The horses is extremely tough with great powers of acceleration and owes its name to its success in common horses races held in the 18th century usually of a quarter of a distance. The horse has a short broad head with small alert ear wide set generous eyes and a short muzzle. The neck is of medium length and slightly arched with well formed withers, while the should deep and sloping.

The Quarter horses is very muscular through the thing and it is this which gives the speed and power. With a calm temperament, strength and agility the Quarter horses is an ideal horses for equestrian sport from racing and show jumping to playing polo.

Because of its strength, the percheron has often been used as a working horse in farming and war. It is also very comfortable to ride, and often exercised in this way

Several breeds of small horses commonly called ponies are native to Great Britain; among them are the Shetland, the Dales, the Welsh, theDartmoor and the new Forest ponies. Mustangs are of domestic European ancestry. European settlers took horses with them to North America, some of which escaped or were released to the wild. Mustangs, whose name is derived from the Spanish world mestenos [“strayed” in English], are found primarily in Mexico and the western plains of the United States.

The breeds of draught or dray horses are more distinct then those of saddle horses. These horses are known for their stamina, power and endurance.  They include the Belgian, the shire, the Clydesdale, and the perch Ron. These horses are some of the largest of horses, reaching shoulder highs of 178cm [70 in] or more and weights of as much as 1,125kg [2,500lb]. The perch Ron, standing about 168cm [66 in] at the shoulder, is a native of the formers district of Le perches in north-western France and was produced by crossing Arabian horses with the old Flemish breed of which the Belgian is the modern representative.

One of the smallest of ponies is the Shetland, which is only about 106 cm[42 in] in height at shoulder. The harsh, bleak climate of the approximately 185 km [155 mi] northeast of Scotland, has dictated the

One of the smallest of ponies is the Shetland, which is only about 106 cm[42 in] in height at shoulder. The harsh, bleak climate of the approximately 185 km [155 mi] northeast of Scotland, has dictated the Shetland pony’s physical characteristics. It is compact and muscular, with hard, tough hooves and a double winter coat that can be black, brown, chestnut, grey, or patchy. Large nasal passages warm the cold air before it reaches the pony’s lungs. Shetland ponies most likely crossed from Scandinavia about 10,000 years ago on then- existing ice fields.

Scientific classification; All horses belong to the family Equate of the order perissodactyla. The domestic horses is classified as Equus caballus . the zebra and the ass or donkey also belong to the sub-species of the domestic horses classified as equus caballus przewalskii.